The Division of Plant Biology has been newly formed by merging the pre-existing Department of Botany with Plant Molecular and Cellular Genetics Section on the 1st April, 2010. The founder Director Acharya J.C. Bose initiated plant physiological studies with biophysical ideas in early 20th century. While Acharya Bose studied physico-chemical phenomenon, plant scientists here in subsequent years started investigating bio-molecular mechanisms associated with plants’ response to external stimuli. Participants of this Division are currently involved in investigating different fundamental problems of plant biology and emphasis has also been given to identify the key proteins and genomic components coding for desirable phenotypes through genetic and molecular approaches. Recently initiatives have also been undertaken to understand epigenetic, transcriptional and post transcriptional regulations of selected key genes.  The effective use of these novel genes and regulatory elements in crop improvement programme by functional genomic and proteomic approaches has been undertaken with a view to improve the plant performance.